Lalon Shah – the Mystical Poet


Lalon International Festival

14-16 October 2011, Rome – Venue: Piazza Perestrello




Content: 1. Discovering Bangla Culture - 2. Discovering Lalon Fakir - 3. Lalons biography - 4. The Bauls - 5. Maner mãnuî - Lalons experience of the Divine in the Human Being - 6. The mystical poet - 7. Lalons rejection of caste and class system - 8. Lalon and Thakur (Tagore) - 9. Lalon Shahs message for today - 10. Lalons challenge for today




1. Discovering Bangla Culture

When I arrived in Bangladesh in 1975, I was an ignorant newcomer in its full sense – ignorant about the Bengali, say: bangla way of life, about culture and politics of a young nation worldwide known by its frequent floods and its threatening overpopulation. I had been ignorant of traditions and values of the Bengali society. Above all, I did not know the mind and heart of the people. Before leaving I often had listened to Joan Baez´ lamenting melodies and verses referring to the tragedy of 1971 with its enormous loss of human lives. And I had read some of the many poems and novels of Rabindranath Tagore. Not much more I knew about the people of Bangladesh.

I was determined to study to learn about Bengali history, culture and religions and at the same time to offer my humble service for a couple of years in form of humanitarian assistance to needy people on behalf of my community, the Catholic Church. I had not at all in mind to convert anyone from one religion to another but rather to try to understand what life means to the Bengali people and which are the cultural roots and what is the vision of those people who are known for its Bengali tiger or Bengali lights or by its literature nobel laureate Tagore. When I was then frequently asked “Why did you come to our country?” I constantly replied with the very first sentence I had learnt in bangla: “Ami ãpnar sanskriti samandhe kicchu jãnte chãi”. The people smiled. It was Mrs. Jayapati from Tangail-Kumudini who gave me at the residence of the then popular German Ambassador a first, stout lesson to put me on the right track: “Do not be misled by thinking that we Bengalis are underdeveloped people; we may be economically poor but culturally we are rich our cultural traditions originating thousands of years ago, much elder than the tradition of your German culture.” Right, I tried to understand and learn.

Thus I went to rural areas to learn. By involving myself in some rural development projects I went to schools and nurseries, to family houses and tea shops, to mosques and temples, to clubs and small business enterprises, first in rural areas of Dinajpur, then in Barisal region. It was always a special experience to be invited to a cultural function where I got the chance to listen to expressive songs and poems and to see colourful dances. Slowly, step by step, I got familiar with various kinds of folk songs such as bhatiali, the boatman songs, or with novels of polli kobi Jasimuddin, with songs of Rabindranath Tagore, Kazi Nazrul Islam and others.


2. Discovering Lalon Fakir

While staying in rural areas I got to listen to voices emitting from family houses, schools and club centres attuned to traditional songs, reciting poems or verses of Holy Scriptures. I began to understand that Bangladeshis are people whose rhythm of life and way of thinking and feeling are greatly marked by traditional songs and poems. Indeed, I got to know a nation made by its culture.

           Some songs however, touched me particularly. I listened to those marvellous melodies, dynamic rhythms and distinct poems. I met people with saffron-billed vestments carrying traditional instruments like ektara and dughi while communicating a message soaked, as I felt, with awe, love, freedom and joy. Folk songs, love songs or devotional songs? I was not sure. I sensed a breeze of happiness and of existential longings in songs of a then unknown composer and poet. Somehow, I was reminded of Gregorian chants of Catholic monks when listing to “khãcãr bhitar acin pãkhī kamne ãse yãõ/ (From where does the unknown bird in the cage fly in and out?”) or “ãche yãr maner mãnuî mane se ki jape mãlã/ (Will someone pray with rosary when the man of the heart is at hand?). Those songs made me curious about its origin and its author until one day someone told me the name of that poet and composer: Lalon Shah, Lalon Fakir. From that time on I began to find out the biography and message of that Lalon Fakir.

I worked in Bangladesh instead of intended two years just 25 years, a period of time so that I made lasting experiences shaping my way of life, thinking and communicating on basic human, socio-cultural and spiritual-religious issues. After returning to Germany, I met Ex-Ambassador Dr. Jochen Goetz who had started his diplomatic career in Dhaka while accompanying me several times to my rural study and work areas. I had initiated a NGO called Dipshika in northern Bangladesh, followed by a women-NGO in Barisal district called Tarango and by Bangla German Sampreeti and Anando in Tangail, Cox´s Bazar and Hill Tracts area, -all NGOs emphasizing the promotion of traditional culture and societal peace side by side with sustainable development endeavours on the basis of self-help and self-management.

When visiting in 2001 the mentioned Ex-Ambassador friend in Rome at the German Embassy, he surprised me by a question: “Tell me in a nutshell what had been your most striking experience in Bangladesh during your 25 years?” I spontaneously replied: “It was the experience the open mindedness and deep faith of the Bengali people, in spite of economic hardship and many societal deprivations, which struck me most. And this way of living and facing challenges is most beautifully expressed by the mystical songs and poetry of Lalon Shah.” The diplomat was surprised since he did not know Lalon Shah. So he urged me with an uncompromising insistence: “In this case you should write a doctoral thesis about that Lalon Shah and his song poems so that other people in Germany may also benefit from your special experience.” I hesitated but finally I could not escape from a serious advice of a good friend. Thus my research on Lalon Shah began. After eight years the outcome of those studies was my PhD doctoral thesis at the Goethe-University in Frankfurt on the Main.


3. Lalons biography

Who was Lalon Shah? Mainly through oral traditions we know about his life. There are no written documents available as base for his biography, except one magazine which had reported 1890 about Lalon´s death and burial. A well-known journal named Hitakori and founded 1823 in Calcutta, reported in its edition of 31th October 1890 about the demise of Lalon Shah. The article appeared under the title Mahatma Lalon Fakir – Mahatma, great soul, the same title of excellence given to Mahatma Gandhi. The Mahatma Lalon is at the same time called Fakir: Mahatma Lalon Fakir. Fakir is someone who leads a nonconformist life, roaming around, consoling people, curing some people with natural medicine, living on alms, relying on Almighty who does not make a difference between Hindus and Muslim… Lalon lead a similar life, however marked by specific experiences which led him to respond to the wounds of society and religion. People of all sections of society gathered around him and listened to him who was his life time in quest of the Divine One – Lalon Fakir.

In the Hitakori-article it is also mentioned that more than 10 000 mourners came to Lalon´s burial among those were many of his followers. His followers or disciples gather until now yearly in Kushtia, his home region, to celebrate urs, a so called several days lasting death anniversary of people considered as saintly people. It is also mentioned that no official representative of any religion - neither a Swami nor a Moulvi - was present at the burial and no rite of purification was performed, neither was water from the Ganges sprinkled nor were Hari-Krishna-chants being heard. This is well explained in the book on Lalon Shah by Abul Ahsan Chowdhury, edited in Bangla Academy Dhaka in 1992. According to another biographer, Basanta Kumar Paul (1895-1975), Lalon sang before breathing his last: “par karo hey dayal chand amare...” (Take me to the other shore, merciful Lord...)

Lalon Shah probably lived from 1774 or 1776 to 1890; however, only the year of his death as well as date and circumstances of his death are recorded. Oral traditions serve in Bengal frequently as sufficiently proved source of verification of what existed and of what happened people adding imaginative decors and aggrandizements. One event however is, often told in almost all oral biographies: During a Hindu pilgrimage someone belonging to the Bhowmiks, a low Hindu caste - his individual name not being mentioned - got during a Hindu pilgrimage seriously sick; his companions left him alone setting him on the Ganges for his last. The unconscious pilgrim stranded at the riverbank while a woman Muslim weaver was washing her clothes. She and her husband belonging to a low Muslim weaver clan took care of the Hindu pilgrim until he recovered. Later, he was given the name “Lalon”, meaning “being fostered, brought up”; the title “Shah” is a name of eminence - kings or eminent persons in the Muslim Persian tradition or in the Hindu tradition were called Shah.

After returning to his Hindu village, Lalon was rejected by the leaders of his community due to ritual impurity after his proximity with the Muslim weaver family. Returning to the weavers, he again was rejected, this time by the religious leaders of the Muslim community for being introduced to Islam by a low class Muslim family and by their spiritual guide, Siraj, who belonged to the mystic Bãul-movement, a non-orthodox community comprising Muslim and Hindus. From then on, Lalon was a persona non grata, rejected by both communities, a non-existent in the eyes of the orthodox Hindus and Muslims. He disappeared for an unknown time. After returning appearing in public again he began to sing and dance while reciting poetic verses. This was his way of expressing what he experienced while disappearing and be non-person. In his hidden time Lalon had discovered the man of the heart (maner mãnuî), meaning the male and female human being of the heart. Lalon used in his poems terms which are acceptable by both, Muslims and Hindus, for example Sã-ª for the Divine, for Brahman and Allah. Lalons most significant term however, was the term, the metaphor the man of the heart, the key metaphor of Lalons poetry. This was the beginning of becoming an eminent Bãul, bauler raja, the King of the Bãuls, the most famous Bãul in modern time.


4. The Bauls

What is the Bãul movement? From where did it come and does it still exist nowadays? There was a socio-spiritual search of the divine and there were challenging socio-religious innovations on the Indian Subcontinent from the 15th century on which led to the way of life which is called the Bãul way of life comprising emotions, thoughts, visions and various traditions. It still exists until today with a limited number of adherents – may be 60 000 women and men. They have neither structures nor institutions. Their religion is the search for the One, the longing to be united with the man of the heart, the jewel being, the unknown bird. It is a specific attitude towards hierarchical religions and feudal politics, a distinct perception of the Divine and the Human.

      The word bãul with its Hindi variant bãur, as Shashibhusan Dasgupta points out, “may be variously derived… from the Sanskrit word vãtula (affected by wind-disease, i.e., mad, crazy), or from vyãkula (impatiently eager); both these derivations are consistent with the modern sense of the word, which denotes inspired people with an ecstatic eagerness for a spiritual life where one can realise one´ s union with the eternal Beloved – the ´Man of the heart´… Also its cognate form Āul can very well be associated with the Arabic word awliya (… originally meaning ´near´, which is used for ´friend´, or ´devotee´), that refers to a class of perfect people. With the Bengali word bãul we may also compare the Sñfī word Diwãnã which means mad, i.e., free from all social responsibilities” and societal bindings. It is furthermore found that the Sãdhakas of the Vai½Òava Sahajiyã tradition, and traditions akin to them, with “their secret practices involving the ´four moons´ (cãri candra), were also known as the Bãul. But it seems that out of their doctrines and practices their search for the ´unknown bird´(acin pãkhī) that mysteriously comes in and goes out of the cage of the human body emerged as the most striking feature. This life-long search for the ´unknown bird´ got itself mingled with the Vai½Òavite and Sñfī-istic devotional approach to the divinity…” (Shashibhusan Dasgupta). I am not referring or giving attention to those secret practices of sexo-yoga which also some Bãuls may exercise. I have restricted my studies to the Bãuls understanding themselves as people searching and cherishing the man of the heart.

Lalon´s songs as many other Baul songs celebrate the man of the heart and speak of the mystic love between the human and the divine by cherishing the man of the heart. This is why the “Bãuls are somewhat strange people, peculiar in their manners and customs, habit and practices. They refuse to be guided by any cannon or convention, social or religious. Freedom of spirit is their watch-word and they take to an unsophisticated way of life in which the more natural inclinations of the mind are not restrained by social institutions. They proceed in a direction opposite to that followed by the general rum of the people. They avoid all religion in which the natural piety of the soul is overshadowed by the useless paraphernalia of ritualism and ceremony on the one hand and pedantry and hypocrisy on the other.” (Shashibhusan Dasgupta, Obsucure Religious Cults, Calcutta 31996) Therefore the Bauls would call their path ulðã (i.e., reverse) path – as pointed out by M. Mansur Uddin in Haramani or by Anwarul Karim. They would call their spiritual experience as a process of proceeding against the current. “Reverse are the modes are the modes and manners of the man who is a real appreciator of the true emotional life and who is a lover of true love; none is sure about the how and the when of his behaviour… He lights the lamp of love and sits on and on with his mind immersed in the fathomless depth of the sea of emotion; he has in his hand the key for happiness, but never seeks it.” (Bãul-sañgīt, collected in the anthology Vividha-dharma-sañgīt, edited by Prasannakumar Sen). It may be observed in this connection that this ulðã path, with all its theological as well as yogic implications, was the path spoken of and adopted by all the medieval saints of India. It was the spirit of Sñfī-ism against the background of the earlier Sahajiyãs. In this respect the Bãul songs of Bengal have the closest affinity whtih the songs of the medieval saints of the other parts of India” (S. Dasgupta, p. 167).


5. Maner mãnuî - Lalons experience of the Divine in the Human Being

Lalon used in his poems such terms which are acceptable by both, Muslims and Hindus, for example Sã-ª for the Divine, comprising Brahman and Allah. Lalon´s most significant term however, was the metaphor the man of the heart, key metaphor of Lalon´s poetry.

Maner mãnuî refers to mãnuî (German: Mensch) which is not meant in a generic sense, it is the One, das Eine, male and female, symbolizing the oneness of both. Etymologically the term is a composite of two terms with different linguistic roots: man (mind, spirit, heart) and mãnuî (physical human being). That key metaphor identifies the immanent (ending) and transcendent (unending) reality of the human being, spirit and body as an inseparable unit, the divine, intrinsic to the human being and at the same time out of reach for human beings. Lalon impressed even Rabinadranth Tagore with that metaphor which describes the dialectic of the human being, the immanent transcendence of the divine in the human being. Also other metaphors such as sahaj mãnuî (the natural man) or sonar mãnuî (the golden man) stand for the same reality but maner mãnuî is Lalon´s metaphor per excellence.

It can be understood as body-centric humanism as emphasized by Lalon-filmmaker Tanvir Mokammel as he depicted it in the preface to the publication of my doctoral thesis: “As human body is the abode of God so human body is the ultimate. This human body-centric humanism of Lalon Fakir was not influenced by the European Renaissance, but was an indigenous grass-root bred of humanism of Bengal itself.” Mokammel, the author of two films on Lalon Shah (1996 Unknown Bird, 2004 Lalon) speaks of Lalon´s humanism originating from the maner mãnuî.

The human body according to Lalon is similarly medium and end of the human experience. It is a medium so as to relate to other human beings and to experience union with the divine. In milon there is ecstasy due to the ability of the human to transcend itself. One may experience the ecstasy in mere physical merging but the essential experience of the “body with the body” takes place in the awakened state of the sahasra: when man (mind) is going upwards within the body (mãnuî). This perception of the human body and being was often strongly criticized and rejected by orthodox religious leaders.

Man of the heart represents the divine dimension of the human being which enables the human person to surpass barriers and division and to overcome decay. Fr. Marino Rigon SX, expert on Bangla culture, Italian missionary, refers the man of the heart to the inner self or inner being of the human person as being understood by St. Paul.

Looking on Lalon´s man of the heart in a theological way, as I try to do, he/she symbolizes a profound longing for the Unseen who is believed to be of marvellous beauty. The man of the heart is stretching out for the only beautiful One with an unplated mirror: “Slam the door shut on the home of bodily desires… Leave not the house of your power and strength; reach out for the moon. You still do not know the One who has the unplated mirror; how do you expect to see him“?

Other basic themes of Lalon´s mysticism and mystical poetry such as the guru/pir-disciple-relation, the perception of the cosmos, of death or sadhana (spiritual practice, meditation) etc. are not being mentioned in this short presentation.


6. The mystical poet

What do we mean when we are saying Lalon Fakir is a mystic poet? What do we mean with mysticism? Mysticism, putting aside esoteric or mere emotional ecstasy, is an intense spiritual search for the divine, an experience of what is unconceivable, indescribable and unseen. One can discern between sober and intoxicated ways of opening up oneself to the divine or widening one´s own consciousness. Basically mysticism is a deep longing and yearning for the Infinite to overcome separation between the human and the divine One and thus to overcome any kind of segregation. While searching for the divine beyond religious classifications and name-givings, Lalon realized the One beyond traditional descriptions in the human, in the human heart itself. It was a liberating experience which led him to the ulðã path, the other way implying another view to society and religion.

Regarding culture Lalon became a stimulus of Bangla culture expressing in creative poems in the regional language the feelings and vision of ordinary people and thus uniting them leaving behind confessional denominations. It is true for Lalon Shah what Annemarie Schimmel wrote about the mystical poets of the Indian Subcontinent: They helped the people through their poems “both to form and to express … their deep trust and unquestioning faith in God´s wisdom” and at the same time to find “their goal in this world and the next.” (Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Köln-Leiden 1980, 149).

The desire, the ultimate goal of mysticism is union with the Almighty and Merciful. But this desire has to be seen critically since neither Islam nor Hinduism contain the teaching of a unio mystica between God and man, between the infinite and finite in the same sense as Christianity does it in the sense of maintaining both identities as the human and divine being although getting united. In Hinduism there is the belief of immersion of the human being into the One that embraces everyone and everything leading to the extinction of the individual being whereas in Islam there is little space for the state of union since it does not know a continuity of substance between God and creation. Thus its goal is fanã, the “extinction in God” by shaking off the various solicitations of the world and thus reaching the state of immersion into divine Presence as result of a kind of intoxication by a new consciousness of the Divine, oneself and the cosmos and by a new way of living in the presence of the Divine. “Being”, as Éric Geoffroy says, “completely unaware of himself as subject-consciousness, the devotee becomes a mirror in which God contemplates Himself” (in: Jean-Louis Michon and Rober Geatani, Sufism, Love and Wisdom, Lahore 2006, 58). Practically however, by opening up oneself to the Divine in exercising one´s own mystical consciousness and in mystical mediation and ways of prayers there is a great affinity among all three mystical traditions.

Lalon´s poems contain the profound, passionate heritage of Sufism translated into the regional language and absorbing other traditions which permit him to address both Muslims and Hindus by assimilating similarly elements of bhakti tradition which touched the hearts of the Hindus and Muslims similarly. Moreover Lalon included elements of the rather esoteric, not by all accepted tantrism with its unorthodox interpretation of directing human sexual energy towards the divine. With absorbing the confluence of different socio-spiritual traditions the poet singer created a new language and new vision of life and thus “contributed greatly to the development of the regional language giving literary form to the language spoken by the people, in contrast to the classical languages – Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian.” (Ainslie T. Embree, Sources of Indian Tradition, New York 21988).


7. Lalons rejection of caste and class system

The era when Lalon Shah composed his poems was a period with a society marked by caste system and caste oppression. The people used folk songs and folk poetry to vent their emotions and pains. While singing during the whole night they forgot their bitter fate, their karma or kismet as they do it until now. They used their own Puranic stories and legends to express their sufferings and hopes. People had their own hermeneutics to explain their social stratifications. The elite of the Brahmanic community on the contrary had their own folk artists for justifying the existing caste system and to create religious fear and horror of the world to come. Lalon had experienced himself the marginalisation and humiliation by the religious leaders of a caste ridden society. He used in his poetic songs the same means - folk-philosophy and poetry - as the Brahmins did. He did it not for the sake of justifying but of opposing the repressive caste system. However, his songs are more than mere expressions of rejection of the evils contaminating religion, society and culture. They are first of all existential expressions of Lalon´s longing for the One, for the Beloved by which he expressed the experiences and longings of the ordinary peasant and fisher folk and their desire to escape from social and religious oppression and exploitation.

Lalon was driven by his vision of a class- and casteless society. Jãtir utpati kothãe? He was asking (where lies the origin of caste?) replying that there is no divine hand in the creation of a caste system. He criticized people following the caste system by claiming to be religious and devotees of the Divine as betrayers of religion and of the Divine. Refusing to acknowledge the Divine in the human person, they are to him like blind people in the darkness. Hindu ki yaban bale kon jãtir bicãr nã-i (whether Hindu or unbeliever caste has no role in it). Lalon criticized and challenged the mercilessness of the elite: Ei bhrom to gela nã (the error has not yet gone). Even today the same system is being practiced in several parts of the society to the extent that one can understand that Lalon´s message has not been taken seriously until now.Lalon´s idea” – as Tanvir Mokkamel says – “that all human beings are equal, devoid of caste, class and creed is a message valid for all ages, and definitely more to our turbulent times.” (Preface in K. Beurle, Der Mensch des Herzens)


8. Lalon and Tagore

There are different views regarding the relation between Lalon Shah and Rabindranath Thakur (1861-1941), called Tagore by the British. Some deny at all that an encounter between Tagore and Lalon took place in Silaidaha near Kushtia, home religion of Lalon and region of estates and vast land property of Tagore´s affluent family residing in Calcutta. Others take it for granted not only that both genii met in reality but also that Lalon had profound impact on the first Asian laureate in literature.

            I am supporting the latter position referring to quotations of Tagore in his wide-spread book “The Religion of Man” (New Delhi 32006): “One day I was chanced to hear a song from a beggar belonging to the Baul sect of Bengal… What struck me in this simple song was a religious expression that was neither grossly concrete, full of crude details, not metaphysical in its rarefied transcendentalism. At the same time it was alive with an emotional sincerity. It spoke of an intense yearning of the heart for the divine who is in Man and not in the temple, or scriptures, in images and symbols. The worshippers addresses his songs to Man the ideal…” (p.96f). Again he says: “Since then I have often tried to meet these people, and sought to understand them through their songs, which are their only form of worship. One is often surprised to find in many of these verses a striking originality of sentiment and diction; for, at their best, they are spontaneously individual in their expressions.” Furthermore the genius poet says: “Those, who have gone through my writings, know that I have expressed my love towards the Baul songs in many of my writings. When I was in Silaidaha I would frequently meet these Bauls and I had occasion to have discourse with them. I have fitted the tune of the Bauls to many of my songs, and in many other songs the tune of the Bauls has consciously or unconsciously been mixed up with other musical modes and modifications. It will be easily understood from the above that the tune as well as the message of the Bauls had at one time absorbed my mind as if they were its very element.” (Haramoni, The lost Jewel, ed. 1931 by Muhammed Mansoor). Edward C. Dimock, Chicago went as far as calling Thakur “The Greatest of the Bauls of Bengal”, which will certainly not find the consent of everyone.

This year 2011 when all over the world the 150th birthday of the great genius of Kolkata is being celebrated it is appropriate to be aware of the specific impact the rural, formally uneducated poet Lalon Fakir – of whom else than Lalon would Tagore speak without naming him? – and also other Bauls had exerted on the highly educated poet.


9. Lalon Shah´s message for today

1) For Lalon Shah, human life and spiritual life were inseparably interwoven. There is no breach between the human and the divine and thus religion is or should be the advocate of a united society without segregation and marginalisation.

2) Lalon Shah like other Bãuls criticized and rejected the hierarchical value system in society and institutionalised religions. Power ambition and social career are alien to the Bãuls. Lalon´s vision and message was a class and caste free society, based on the longing for the One, the unseen Divine. This is until now the longing and expectations of millions people.

3) Lalon Shah was a poet of and for the poor and exploited people reflecting their deprivations and aspirations. The folk poet composing his poems in a creative metaphor language enriched Bengali culture to a great extent. Nowadays experts and international bodies like UNESCO realize the quality of Lalon´s poetry and his universal message as part of the immaterial cultural world heritage. Lalon was not an intellectual-metaphysical poet. In his poems one realizes that he was earth rooted and socially immersed. His folk poetry is a unique expression of a folk religiosity that does not rely on formal prayers and ritual offerings but uses meditations on the One, reflections on spiritual experiences and spontaneous songs as its prayers.


10. Lalons challenge for today

With the permission of the audience, I would try, in spite of not being a Bengali, to make some humble suggestions how to respond to Lalon´s message in our post-modern time:

1) Bangladeshis could be more aware of their spiritual roots and socio-cultural traditions in order to treasure their spiritual-cultural heritage as citizens of a nation based on culture discarding religious fanaticism and oppressive social hierarchies.

2) There is today an urgent need to defend human and cultural values against invaders or aggressors from fundamentalist or economic fronts soliciting bigoted, greedy and destructive value systems. Aggressive power agents seek, as in colonial times, their own advantage in the name of religion or free market ideology to the detriment of traditional values and socially balanced life patterns. Peace based on western or eastern fundamentalism is illusionary.

3) The elder generation is dependent on the younger generation so as to pass on the values and vision for which the generation of freedom fighters and promoter of Bangla culture have fought and given their lives. The academic and non-academic youths have the duty and chance to bring up to date the cultural heritage and the vision of a society being a just, multifaceted society with same rights and same chances for all.

4) Living in a breathless epoch of fundamental changes and unthinkable discoveries the generation of today´s youths are the ones to draw from the wells of spiritual-mystical sources against all the odds of ideologies supporting power greed and individual success career.

5) Finally living in an epoch of competition and dialogue the many talented Bangla artists, writers and researchers are capable to accept the challenges of other cultures from East and West by practicing and studying their own culture so as to compete with other cultures by presenting Bangla culture and its message with competently in the present global context.